List of Contents

1. Plants, Taxonomy and Systematics 1

2. Descriptive Terminology 16

3. Process of Identification 50

4. Taxonomic Evidence 85

5. Hierarchical Classification 142

6. Botanical Nomenclature 151

7. Variation, Biosystematics, Population Genetics and Evolution 183

8. Numerical and Cladistic Methods 203

9. Phylogeny of Angiosperms 252

10. Systems of Classification 283

11. Families of Pteridophytes 341

12. Families of Gymnosperms 364

13. Selected Families of Angiosperms 386

14. Plant Geography  544

References 561

Index 589

About the Book

The present fourth edition of the book is a completely revised and strongly updated, largely based on the developments of the last few years. The publication of current edition was forced mainly because of publication of revision of International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants (Shenzhen Code, 2018), new version of PhyloCode (Beta version of Phylocode 5, 2014), updated APweb version 14 (Update September, 2018), revised Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification APG IV (2016), new Pteridophyte  Phylogeny Group Classification PPG I (2016) and accumulation of large amount of information subsequent to the publication of third edition. The book blends information on classical fundamental aspects with recent developments especially in the field of molecular systematics, cladistics and computer identification. Special attention has been given to information on botanical nomenclature, identification, molecular systematics and phylogeny of angiosperms. The complicated concepts of phylogeny, taxometrics and cladistics have been explained with a view to provide a 
comparison between these diverse but interactive fields of study. Attempt has been made to build upon a common example when exploring different methods, especially in procedures of identification, taxometrics and cladistics. The major systems of classification are critically evaluated. Discussion on major families of Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms, especially those of major phylogenetic interest, forms major portion of the present edition.
The book, designed primarily for Indian readership, includes description of representative species of each family with detailed illustrations, floral diagram and floral formula. Although the arrangement of the families has been made according to APG IV (2016) classification, the chapter also includes classification of each family according to the widely followed classification of Bentham and Hooker. The discussion of the families also has a considerable focus on their phylogenetic relationships, as evidenced by recent cladistic studies, with liberal citation of molecular data. A chapter plant geography has been retained in the present edition. I attempted to strike a balance between classical fundamental information and the recent developments in plant systematics. Special attention has been devoted to the information on botanical nomenclature, identification and phylogeny of angiosperms with numerous relevant examples and detailed explanation of important nomenclatural problems. An attempt has been made to present a continuity between orthodox and contemporary identification methods by working on a common example. The methods of identification using computers have been further explored to help better online identification. Outputs of computer programs, especially used in molecular studies and construction of phylogenetic trees have been included based on actual or hypothetical data. This will acquaint readers with the handling of raw data and working of computer programs. Internet highways are revolutionising the exchange of scientific information.